Historical Eating Habits: What Did People Really Eat in Medieval Times?

Historical Eating Habits: What Did People Really Eat in Medieval Times?

Exploring medieval European cuisine means delving into the diets and cooking practices from the 5th to the 15th century. While the focus is typically on Europe, it's crucial to understand that these culinary traditions span various regions and classes, each with distinct flavors and habits. Food preparation was communal and rustic, with open fires that served multiple families within a town. Staples of the medieval diet included bread and cereals such as barley, oats, and rye. Wheat, a more expensive grain reserved for the affluent, was used in bread, porridge, gruel, and early forms of pasta. Rice and potatoes, which later became dietary staples, were introduced to the common diet after the 1530s.

The Core of Medieval Diets and Church Influence

The backbone of medieval cuisine was cereals, especially wheat, which constituted up to three-quarters of the average person's diet by the 9th century. The influence of the Roman Catholic Church was profound, dictating dietary restrictions that forbade meat consumption for about a third of the year, including during Lent and other fasting periods. During these times, not only were eggs and dairy products restricted, but the definition of permissible foods like "fish" was broadened to include various aquatic creatures, reflecting the church's significant sway over daily life.

Social Stratification through Food

Food was a prominent marker of social status in a highly stratified medieval society. Nobles enjoyed fresh game seasoned with exotic spices imported from distant lands, showcasing their wealth and political power. In stark contrast, common laborers had to contend with coarse barley bread and beans. It was commonly believed that the digestive systems of the nobility were more refined than their subordinates, a notion that underscored the social divide.

Dietary Practices and Medical Beliefs

Medieval dietary choices were heavily influenced by contemporary medical knowledge. Foods were categorized by their properties—hot, cold, moist, or dry—according to Galen's theory of the four bodily humors. The ideal diet was considered moderately warm and moist, aligning with the perceived needs of the human body. Meals often begin with a sweet aperitif to "open" the stomach and conclude with a digestive dragée to aid digestion.

Caloric Needs and Etiquette

Despite the heavy reliance on cereals, the medieval diet was diverse regarding caloric intake. Post-Black Death, meat's contribution to the diet increased, particularly among laborers, sailors, and soldiers who required roughly 3,500 calories daily to sustain their strenuous activities. Dining etiquette also reflected social hierarchy, with entire households dining together, including servants. The evolution of dining practices saw wealthier hosts eventually retreating to private chambers to dine, a privilege reserved for esteemed guests and a mark of exclusivity.

Communal dining was not just a matter of social practice but also a reflection of the feudal system of the time. The lower ranks were expected to serve the higher, and the young were expected to assist the elders. This hierarchy extended to mealtime behaviors, where even the utensils and the manner of eating underscored one's place within the social structure. Most people brought their knives to the table and shared them with their dining companions, as forks were yet to be used.

The Reality of Medieval Beverages and Misconceptions

Alcoholic beverages were favored over water, considered more nutritious, and safer from contamination. The typical drinks include beer, ale, mead, and fruit juices like mulberry and cider. Interestingly, adults generally avoided plain milk unless they were impoverished or ill, a stark contrast to modern dietary habits.

Our image of medieval feasts—complete with kings tearing into turkey legs and lords feasting on exotic dishes—is only partially accurate and largely applicable to the upper echelons of society. Such banquets featured foods demonstrating wealth and access to global spices and ingredients, reinforcing the host's status. Meanwhile, the common folk's diet was more humble, primarily based on locally sourced cereals and vegetables, with meat being a less frequent addition.

This exploration of medieval eating habits reveals a complex interplay of social norms, religious influences, and economic factors that dictated the diet of the era. From the grand banquets of the nobility to the simple meals of the peasantry, food reflected one's social standing and geographical circumstances.


By understanding these historical eating habits, we gain insight into the evolution of culinary practices. We can appreciate the advancements in cooking technology, such as those offered by modern appliances like the iQ Cooker. This device simplifies the preparation of elaborate and basic dishes, illustrating how far we've come from the open fires of medieval kitchens.